First of all, we must mention the main raw materials from which it is produced. These are water, malt, hops and brewer's yeast (with the more common name - yeast). Each of these raw materials has its own peculiarity, which combined with that of the other raw materials in the course of the technological process forms the character of various beers.
1. Grinding malt is one of the most important operations in the initial stage of beer production. This is because in order to break down the substances present in the malt, it is necessary for the enzymes to reach them. This is most easily and practically done by grinding malt. In this way, the already small particles of malt are much easier to break down into sugars, amino acids and other substances. Pre-purified and weighed malt is ground in special malt mills.
2. Mixing malt with water - Water provides an opportunity for the action of enzymes, as well as conditions for some substances to pass into a soluble form.
3. Mashing is one of the most important, but perhaps one of the most complex processes in beer production. The process itself is the maintenance of certain temperatures of malt slurry for a certain time.
4. Filtration of malt slurry - The purpose of this stage is to separate the liquid from the malt bran. The liquid is a combination of water and extracts obtained by mashing and is called wort.
5. Washing the malt bran and brewing the wort with hops, which gives the beer its specific bitterness and aroma. Its addition to wort is carried out precisely at the high temperature of brewing, because there the hop bitter substances are most completely dissolved, utilized and transformed.
6. Separation of hot sludge - hot sludge is formed during cooking and is the most undesirable, then their removal is carried out immediately after brewing the wort.
7. Cooling and aeration of the wort - cooling is associated with the subsequent fermentation of the wort with a pure culture of brewer's yeast. If this cooling does not take place, the high temperature would destroy the microorganisms. Aeration of the wort provides oxygen, which promotes the intensive reproduction of the yeast, as a result of which it is ensured that the fermentation will take place in a desired and controlled way.
8. Fermentation of wort - The use of pure culture of brewer's yeast is one of the greatest advantages of modern brewing. This largely ensures the high quality of the beer. This can only be done using a carefully selected and controlled strain of brewer's yeast
9. Main alcoholic fermentation - Alcoholic fermentation is the natural and only way to turn wort into beer. It is carried out by brewer's yeast. One of the most important substances is the sugars obtained during mashing. In the course of fermentation, they are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide, which gave the beer a drink with a completely natural alcohol content and soda.
10. Fermentation and maturation of beer - allows for additional formation of alcohol and saturation of beer with carbon dioxide. In addition, a number of other changes are made in the composition of the beer, which shape its aromatic and taste characteristics.
11. Filtration of beer - beer contains many tiny particles that disrupt its clarity. Usually, they are completely natural, and largely useful. To remove these particles, the beer is subjected to a final filtration, after which it acquires the crystalline form that we know and consume.
12. Calming the beer - after filtration, the carbon dioxide in the beer is mainly in two forms - bound and free. An equilibrium is established between these two forms, and when the beer is subjected to various external influences, this balance is disturbed. Therefore, immediately after filtration, the beer is fed for soothing in special devices.
13. Beer bottling - pasteurization is one of the main treatments of beer, which aims only to increase its durability and stability. Depending on the chosen packaging and technological solution, pasteurization can be carried out before or after pouring the beer.